Surgical efforts to modify the anatomy and function of the digestive tract for the treatment of obesity began in the mid-20th century. These interventions initially resulted in significant morbidity and mortality, both due to trauma of the soft tissues and abdominal wall and their metabolic consequences.
It was the advent of minimally invasive surgery in the last decade of the 20th century that made bariatric surgery the most effective, targeted and cost-effective treatment, both of obesity itself and of its metabolic consequences, such as type II diabetes and dyslipidemia.
Bariatric and metabolic surgery must currently be considered the reference treatment for Obesity.
Complete surgical treatment of obesity includes not only visceral and endocrine surgery procedures, but also the reconstructive surgical procedures that may be required in the future.
Long-term success is only possible at the cost of dietary, physiotherapy, psychological and social care. Performed in isolation, the surgery only achieves sub-optimal results.